Mohamed Saleh is a Professor of Economics at the Toulouse School of Economics and a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse. His research interests are in Economic History, Political Economy, and Development Economics. In particular, he has been interested in the economic history of the Middle East and North Africa, where he employs novel datasets constructed from both primary (archival) and secondary data sources, such as historical population censuses and papyrological tax records. Some of the topics he examined include the socioeconomic differences across religious groups in the Middle East and North Africa, how they were generated by taxation in the medieval period, and how they were influenced by state industrialization and public mass education during the last two centuries. In addition to various questions related to this topic, his current research agenda also focuses on labor coercion and land inequality in the region and the historical shift toward wage labor.