This paper estimates the treatment effect of grade repetition on subsequent schooling performances in France. We correct for potential selection issues associated with grade retention, using a multi-stage econometric model. We find that early grade repetition (Grade 1 or 2) leads to an increase in test scores in the very short-run (in grade 3) but this positive effect is only transitory, as it becomes negative 3 or 4 years after the retention (in grade 6).
grade retention; treatment effect; endogeneity;
Annales d'Économie et de Statistique, Paris: Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, n. 111-112, 2014, pp. 227–250