Working paper

Fair Gatekeeping in Digital Ecosystems

Jean Tirole, and Michele Bisceglia


Do users receive their fair contribution to digital ecosystems? The frequent accusations of excessive platform fees and self-preferencing leveled at dominant gatekeepers raise the issue of the standard gatekeepers should be held to. The paper provides a framework to explain business strategies and assess regulatory proposals. It stresses the key role played by the zero lower bounds on core and app prices in the setting of privately and socially optimal platform fees. Finally, it derives a simple rule for regulating access conditions and analyses its implementation.


Platforms; ecosystems; fair access; price and non-price foreclosure; zero lower bounds;

JEL codes

  • L12: Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies
  • L4: Antitrust Issues and Policies


Jean Tirole, and Michele Bisceglia, Fair Gatekeeping in Digital Ecosystems, TSE Working Paper, n. 1452, June 2023.

See also

Published in

TSE Working Paper, n. 1452, June 2023