We study judicial in-group bias in Indian criminal courts, collecting data on over 80 million legal case records from 2010–2018. We exploit quasi-random assignment of judges and changes in judge cohorts to examine whether defendant outcomes are affected by being assigned to a judge with a similar religious or gender identity. We estimate tight zero effects of in-group bias. The upper end of our 95% confidence interval rejects effect sizes that are one-fifth of those in most of the prior literature.
- J15: Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination
- J16: Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination
- K4: Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior
- O12: Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
Elliott Ash, Sam Asher, Aditi Bhowmick, Sandeep Bhupatiraju, Daniel L. Chen, Tatanya Devi, Christoph Goessmann, Paul Novosad et Bilal Siddiqi, « Measuring Gender and Religious Bias in the Indian Judiciary », TSE Working Paper, n° 22-1395, décembre 2022.
TSE Working Paper, n° 22-1395, décembre 2022